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4Q45 PaleoDeuteronomyr
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Genesis - 22 Scrolls

Exodus - 17 Scrolls

Leviticus - 16 Scrolls

Numbers - 11 Scrolls

Deuteronomy - 32 Scrolls

Joshua - 2 Scrolls

Judges - 3 Scrolls

Ruth - 4 Scrolls

Samuel - 4 Scrolls

Kings - 3 Scrolls

Chronicles - 1 Scroll

Ezra - 1 Scroll

Job - 4 Scrolls

Psalms - 41 Scrolls

Proverbs - 2 Scrolls

Ecclesiastes - 2 Scrolls

Song of Solomon - 4 Scrolls

Isaiah - 21 Scrolls

Jeremiah - 6 Scrolls

Lamentations - 4 Scrolls

Ezekiel - 7 Scrolls

Daniel - 8 Scrolls

Minor Prophets - 10 Scrolls

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4Q45 PaleoDeuteronomyr

Language: Hebrew using the PaleoHebrew script

Date:  100-25 B.C.

Location: Qumran Cave 4

Contents: Deuteronomy 1:8; 7:2-8, 16-25; 10:11-12; 11:28-32; 12:1-3, 5, 10-12, 22-23; 13:18; 14:1-2, 4-5, 19, 21-22, 26-29; 15:4-6, 8-10; 19:2-3; 22:3-6; 23:6-7, 11-14 (Hebrew 23:7-8, 12-15); 28:14-18, 20; 31:29; 32:6-8, 10-11, 13-14, 33, 35; 33:2-3, 5-8, 29; 34:1-2


Deuteronomy 1

Behold, I have set the land before you. Go in and possess the land which Yahweh swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give to them and to their offspring after them.’ ”


Deuteronomy 7

and when Yahweh your God delivers them up before you, and you strike them; then you shall utterly destroy them. You shall make no covenant with them, nor show mercy to them. You shall not make marriages with them. You shall not give your daughter to his son, nor shall you take his daughter for your son. For he will turn away your son from following me, that they he may serve other gods. So Yahweh’s anger would be kindled against you, and he would destroy you quickly. But you shall deal with them like this. You shall break down their altars, dash their pillars in pieces, cut down their Asherah poles, and burn their engraved images with fire. For you are a holy people to Yahweh your God. Yahweh your God has chosen you to be a people for his own possession, above all peoples who are on the face of the earth. Yahweh didn’t set his love on you, nor choose you, because you were more in number than any people; for you were the fewest of all peoples: but because Yahweh loves you, and because he desires to keep the oath which he swore to your fathers, Yahweh has brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.


16 You shall consume all the peoples whom Yahweh your God shall deliver to you. Your eye shall not pity them. You shall not serve their gods; for that would be a snare to you. 17 If you shall say in your heart, “These nations are more than I; how can I dispossess them?” 18 you shall not be afraid of them. You shall remember well what Yahweh your God did to Pharaoh, and to all Egypt: 19 the great trials which your eyes saw, the signs, the wonders, the mighty hand, and the outstretched arm, by which Yahweh your God brought you out. So shall Yahweh your God do to all the peoples of whom you are afraid. 20 Moreover Yahweh your God will send the hornet among them, until those who are left, and hide themselves, perish from before you. 21 You shall not be scared of them; for Yahweh your God is among you, a great and awesome God. 22 Yahweh your God will cast out those nations before you little by little. You may not consume them at once, lest the animals of the field increase on you. 23 But Yahweh your God will deliver them up before you, and will confuse them with a great confusion, until they are destroyed. 24 He will deliver their kings into your hand, and you shall make their name perish from under the sky. No one will be able to stand before you, until you have destroyed them. 25 You shall burn the engraved images of their gods with fire. You[1] shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them, nor take it for yourself, lest you be snared in it; for it is an abomination to Yahweh your God.


Deuteronomy 10

11 Yahweh said to me, “Arise, take your journey before the people; and they shall go in and possess the land, which I swore to their fathers to give to them.”

12 Now, Israel, what does Yahweh your God require of you, but to fear Yahweh your God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him, and to serve Yahweh your God with all your heart and with all your soul,


Deuteronomy 11

28 and the curse, if you do not listen to the commandments of Yahweh your God, but turn away out of the way which I command you today, to go after other gods, which you have not known. 29 It shall happen, when Yahweh your God brings you into the land where you go to possess it, that you shall set the blessing on Mount Gerizim, and the curse on Mount Ebal. 30 Aren’t they beyond the Jordan, behind the way of the going down of the sun, in the land of the Canaanites who dwell in the Arabah, near Gilgal, beside the oaks of Moreh? 31 For you are to pass over the Jordan to go in to possess the land which Yahweh your God gives you, and you shall possess it, and dwell therein. 32 You shall observe to do all the statutes and the ordinances which I set before you today.


Deuteronomy 12

And these are the statutes and the ordinances which you shall observe to do in the land which Yahweh, the God of your fathers, has given you to possess it, all the days that you live on the earth. You shall surely destroy all the places in which the nations that you shall dispossess served their gods, on the high mountains, and on the hills, and under every green tree. You shall break down their altars, and dash their pillars in pieces, and burn their Asherah poles with fire. You shall cut down the engraved images of their gods. You shall destroy their name out of that place.


But to the place which Yahweh your God shall choose out of all your tribes, to put his name there, you shall seek his habitation, and there you shall come.


10 But when you go over the Jordan, and dwell in the land which Yahweh your God causes you to inherit, and he gives you rest from all your enemies around you, so that you dwell in safety; 11 then it shall happen that to the place which Yahweh your God shall choose, to cause his name to dwell there, there you shall bring all that I command you: your burnt offerings, your sacrifices, your tithes, the wave offering of your hand, and all your choice vows which you vow to Yahweh. 12 You shall rejoice before Yahweh your God: you, and your sons, your daughters, your male servants, your female servants, and the Levite who is within your gates, because he has no portion nor inheritance with you.


22 Even as the gazelle and as the deer is eaten, so you shall eat of it. The unclean and the clean may eat of it alike. 23 Only be sure that you don’t eat the blood; for the blood is the life. You shall not eat the life with the meat.


Deuteronomy 13

18 when you listen to Yahweh your God’s voice, to keep all his commandments which I command you today, to do that which is right and good in Yahweh your God’s eyes.


Deuteronomy 14

You are the children of Yahweh your God. You shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead. For you are a holy people to Yahweh your God, and Yahweh has chosen you to be a people for his own possession, above all peoples who are on the face of the earth.


These are the animals which you may eat: the ox, the sheep, the goat, the deer, the gazelle, the roebuck, the wild goat, the ibex, the antelope, and the chamois.


19 All winged creeping things are unclean to you. They shall not be eaten.


21 You shall not eat of anything that dies of itself. You may give it to the foreigner living among you who is within your gates, that he may eat it; or you may sell it to a foreigner; for you are a holy people to Yahweh your God. You shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.

22 You shall surely tithe all the increase of your seed, that which comes out of the field year by year.


26 You shall trade the money for whatever your soul desires, for cattle, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatever your soul asks of you; and you shall eat there before Yahweh your God, and you shall rejoice, you and your household. 27 You shall not forsake the Levite who is within your gates, for he has no portion nor inheritance with you. 28 At the end of every three years you shall bring all the tithe of your increase in the same year, and shall store it within your gates. 29 The Levite, because he has no portion nor inheritance with you, and the foreigner living among you, and the fatherless, and the widow, who are within your gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that Yahweh your God may bless you in all the work of your hand which you do.


Deuteronomy 15

However there shall be no poor with you (for Yahweh will surely bless you in the land which Yahweh your God gives you for an inheritance to possess it) if only you diligently listen to Yahweh your God’s voice, to observe to do all this commandment which I command you today. For Yahweh your God will bless you, as he promised you. You will lend to many nations, but you will not borrow. You will rule over many nations, but they will not rule over you.


but you shall surely open your hand to him, and shall surely lend him sufficient for his need, which he lacks. Beware that there not be a wicked thought in your heart, saying, “The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand;” and your eye be evil against your poor brother, and you give him nothing; and he cry to Yahweh against you, and it be sin to you. 10 You shall surely give, and your heart shall not be grieved when you give to him; because that for this thing Yahweh your God will bless you in all your work, and in all that you put your hand to.


Deuteronomy 19

you shall set apart three cities for yourselves in the middle of your land, which Yahweh your God gives you to possess it. You shall prepare the way, and divide the borders of your land which Yahweh your God causes you to inherit into three parts, that every man slayer may flee there.


Deuteronomy 22

So you shall do with his donkey. So you shall do with his garment. So you shall do with every lost thing of your brother’s, which he has lost, and you have found. You may not hide yourself. You shall not see your brother’s donkey or his ox fallen down by the way, and hide yourself from them. You shall surely help him to lift them up again. A woman shall not wear men’s clothing, neither shall a man put on women’s clothing; for whoever does these things is an abomination to Yahweh your God. If you come across a bird’s nest on the way, in any tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs, and the hen sitting on the young, or on the eggs, you shall not take the hen with the young.


Deuteronomy 23

You shall not seek their peace nor their prosperity all your days forever. You shall not abhor an Edomite; for he is your brother. You shall not abhor an Egyptian, because you lived as a foreigner in his land.


11 but it shall be, when evening comes, he shall bathe himself in water. When the sun is down, he shall come within the camp. 12 You shall have a place also outside of the camp where you go relieve yourself. 13 You shall have a trowel among your weapons. It shall be, when you relieve yourself outside, you shall dig with it, and shall turn back and cover your excrement; 14 for Yahweh your God walks in the middle of your camp, to deliver you, and to give up your enemies before you. Therefore your camp shall be holy, that he may not see an unclean thing in you, and turn away from you.


Deuteronomy 28

14 and shall not turn away from any of the words which I command you today, to the right hand, or to the left, to go after other gods to serve them.

15 But it shall come to pass, if you will not listen to Yahweh your God’s voice, to observe to do all his commandments and his statutes which I command you today, that all these curses will come on you, and overtake you. 16 You will be cursed in the city, and you will be cursed in the field. 17 Your basket and your kneading trough will be cursed. 18 The fruit of your body, the fruit of your ground, the increase of your livestock, and the young of your flock will be cursed.


20 Yahweh will send on you cursing, confusion, and rebuke, in all that you put your hand to do, until you are destroyed, and until you perish quickly; because of the evil of your doings, by which you have forsaken me.


Deuteronomy 31

29 For I know that after my death you will utterly corrupt yourselves, and turn away from the way which I have commanded you; and evil will happen to you in the latter days; because you will do that which is evil in Yahweh’s sight, to provoke him to anger through the work of your hands.”


Deuteronomy 32

6 Is this the way you repay Yahweh,

foolish and unwise people?

Isn’t he your father who has bought you?

He has made you and established you.

7 Remember the days of old.

Consider the years of many generations.

Ask your father, and he will show you;

your elders, and they will tell you.

8 When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance,

when he separated the children of men,

he set the bounds of the peoples

according to the number of the children of Israel.


10 He found him in a desert land,

in the waste howling wilderness.

He surrounded him.

He cared for him.

He kept him as the apple of his eye.

11 As an eagle that stirs up her nest,

that flutters over her young,

he spread abroad his wings,

he took them,

he bore them on his feathers.


13 He made him ride on the high places of the earth.

He ate the increase of the field.

He caused him to suck honey out of the rock,

oil out of the flinty rock;

14 butter from the herd, and milk from the flock,

with fat of lambs,

rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats,

with the finest of the wheat.

From the blood of the grape, you drank wine.


33 Their wine is the poison of serpents,

the cruel venom of asps.


35 Vengeance is mine, and recompense,

at the time when their foot slides;

for the day of their calamity is at hand.

Their doom rushes at them.”


Deuteronomy 33

He said,

“Yahweh came from Sinai,

and rose from Seir to them.

He shone from Mount Paran.

He came from the ten thousands of holy ones.

At his right hand was a fiery law for them.

Yes, he loves the people.

All his saints are in your hand.

They sat down at your feet.

Each receives your words.


 5 He was king in Jeshurun,

when the heads of the people were gathered,

all the tribes of Israel together.


“Let Reuben live, and not die;

Nor let his men be few.”

7 This is for Judah. He said,

“Hear, Yahweh, the voice of Judah.

Bring him in to his people.

With his hands he contended for himself.

You shall be a help against his adversaries to me.”

8 About Levi he said,

“Your Thummim and your Urim are with your godly one,

whom you proved at Massah,

with whom you contended at the waters of Meribah.


29 You are happy, Israel!

Who is like you, a people saved by Yahweh,

the shield of your help,

the sword of your excellency?

Your enemies will submit themselves to you.

You will tread on their high places.”


Deuteronomy 34

Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. Yahweh showed him all the land of Gilead, to Dan, and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, to the western sea,

[1] The scroll uses a plural “you”, while the MT uses a singular “you.”

How to read these pages:

      The translation to the left is based on the World English Bible. Words in regular black font are words in the scrolls matching the traditional text for that passage.

      Words in italics cannot be seen in the scroll, since the scroll is fragmentary. These words are supplied for readability by the World English Bible translation.

      Words present in the scroll but with some letters unreadable or missing are in blue like this: blue. One Hebrew word often is translated into multiple English words, and when this occurs, all the English words are in blue.

      Words present in the scroll but with spelling differences that do not affect the meaning are in green like this: green. This is common in Hebrew.

      If the scroll is different from the traditional text, words in the traditional text that are missing from the text of the scroll are marked through in red like this: strike-through.

      If the scroll is different from the traditional text, words in the scroll that are not in the traditional text are underlined in red like this: new words.